History was created when Armstrong put his left foot on the surface of Moon, thus becoming the first ever man to place his foot on someplace other than the Earth. He was and for centuries to come, will be regarded as the greatest American hero who created a landmark moment in human history. Trained as an aeronautical engineer, he soon took to being a test pilot and served as the same for a number of years before being selected as an astronaut. Interestingly, all his accomplishments would not have happened in the first place had his friend, Dick Day not placed his application for astronaut with the ones that arrived on time; Armstrong's application had arrived about a week after the deadline. Armstrong's first mission into the space was as command pilot of Gemini 8 in 1966. With this, he became the first civilian to fly in space. His second and last space flight occurred three years later in 1969 when he joined Aldrin and Collins aboard Apollo 11 for NASA's first manned mission to moon. Armstrong spent about two hours walking on the moon surface, collecting samples and conducting experiments. His fiery determination coupled with his heroic demeanour and unwavering team spirit made him a man of virtue and honor. To know in details about his life and profile, scroll further.
Edwin Eugene ˜Buzz' Aldrin Jr. is an American astronaut and the second person to walk on the moon. Since his childhood days, he seemed destined to be an aviator and entered the Air Force after his graduation from West Point Military Academy where he flew 66 combat missions in Korea during the war. After the cease fire between North and South Korea, Aldrin enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, earning his PhD in Aeronautics and astronautics. He developed a thesis which focused on rendezvousing piloted spacecraft and soon entered the space program where he relied on his doctoral studies to create docking and rendezvous techniques for spacecrafts. He also pioneered underwater training techniques, which simulated zero-gravity situations and helped astronauts prepare to work in space. Aldrin served as a lunar module pilot for the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, travelling with Commander Neil Armstrong and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins. On his return from the mission, he was decorated with the ˜Presidential Medal of Freedom', the highest American peacetime award. In recent years, Aldrin continued expansion of the space programs specifically calling for a return to moon and manned visits to Mars.
Mae Carol Jemison is an American physician and former astronaut for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). She holds the distinction of being the first African American woman to travel to space. She has stated that as a child she always knew she would fly amongst the stars. In her mind, travel to space would be as common as going to work. With a personality geared toward learning, she is the recipient of nine honorary doctorates in the fields of science, engineering, letters and the humanities. She also has a great sense of self-assurance and empathy. Once while serving in the Peace Corps, she overrode another doctor's diagnosis and called in an airlift for a patient at the cost of $80,000. When told she didn't have the authority, she responded that she didn't need it. Her diagnosis proved correct and the patient survived. This sense of confidence helped to catapult Mae far in the fields of science and technology. Since her time in space, Jemison has worked tirelessly to expand technology as well as educate the next generation of scientists. She has created multiple corporations and camps aimed at accomplishing this goal. Her continued ambitions play an important part in technological advancement. To know more about her life and works read on.
Sally Ride was an American physicist and astronaut who achieved iconic status by becoming the first American woman and third overall to travel to space. Although she was interested in science from a very young age, tennis was actually her first love. She made a brave decision to quit her studies at ˜Swarthmore College' to try a career in professional tennis. However, after being unable to make any major inroads in her tennis career, she returned to science with a renewed vigor. Ride spent the next few years accumulating degrees and knowledge, which would help her get selected for NASA's space program. She successfully completed an intense training and joined NASA for what would become a historic mission. In a span of four years, Ride was selected to travel in a space flight, which she embraced gladly. Her journey in the ˜Challenger' shuttle served as an inspiration for millions of women worldwide. Ride moved on to have a stellar career, going to space once more in the process, and garnering a host of awards and honours. She was involved in a lot of charity work during her older years, most of which was dedicated to girls and young women. Looking back at her incredible career, it would indeed be fitting to state that sports' loss was science's gain.
The first American astronaut to orbit the earth, the third and the oldest American to make it to space, John Glenn is a man who has donned numerous hats in his lifetime. Before he became a legendary hero, he was a dedicated countryman who served in the United Sates Military, Navy and the Marine Corps. He served in the World War II and the Korean War, leading and flying many successful missions. Soon after, he became a test pilot and received a Distinguished Flying Cross for his record non-stop supersonic transcontinental flight from Los Angeles to New York. He was later recruited into NASA. On-board the ˜Friendship 7' spaceship, he successfully encircled the earth three times, thus becoming the first American to orbit the Earth. He then retired from NASA and became the United States Senator from Ohio and Chairman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs. He passionately campaigned against nuclear weapons all through his tenure in the Senate. He has received numerous awards and decorations including the NASA service medal, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom among many others.
Canadian Air Force Commander who became the first Canadian in history to walk in space. He gained a fan base on social media when he posted pictures aboard a space station of the Earth.
Michael Collins is one of the three astronauts, who worked on the ˜Apollo 11' mission, which made the first lunar landing, one of the biggest events in history of mankind. While his colleagues, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin stepped on the moon, Collins was the command module pilot of the mission, who orbited around the moon. After an initial rejection, Collins was chosen by NASA to be a part of the ˜Astronaut Group 3'. His first spaceflight assignment was the ˜Gemini 10' mission, during which he performed the spacewalk. Michael Collins was an army man, before he joined NASA. He graduated from the United States Military Academy, after which he joined the United States Air Force and was commissioned to the Chambley-Bussieres Air Base, France. He has been the recipient of numerous honours and decorations including, the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, Collier Trophy, the Hubbard Medal and Presidential Medal of Freedom among many others. After he retired from NASA, he became Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs in the Department of State. He later established his own consulting business.
After serving in the British Army Air Corps, this military test pilot began his career as an astronaut with the European Space Agency. He holds the distinction of being the ESA's first English astronaut.
Yuri Gagarin was a famous Russian cosmonaut and the first man to enter space and orbit the Earth, on the ˜Vostok 1.' He became a national hero and a global celebrity after his successful mission that marked a victory for the ˜Eastern Bloc' against the West in the race to space. He was commissioned as a lieutenant in the ˜Soviet Air Forces' and was chosen as one of the 20 pilots for the Soviet space program. After strenuous training and psychological tests, Gagarin and Gherman Titov were shortlisted as the final two candidates for the first human space mission. Gagarin was the preferred candidate for the historic feat because of his short stature and presence of mind. After the mission, he became the deputy training director of the Star City cosmonaut training base and was elected as a deputy to the ˜Soviet of Nationalities.' He re-qualified as a fighter pilot and successfully completed a thesis on the spaceplane, which was to be the space craft for the future. Ironically, he died in a ˜Mikoyan-Gurevich (MiG)-15UTI' crash near the town of Kirzhach during a routine training flight from ˜Chkalovsky Air Base.' His body was cremated and his ashes were buried in the walls of the ˜Kremlin' on Red Square to honor his contribution to the Russian space program.
Former astronaut credited with being the first Hispanic woman in space. She later held the position of Director of the Johnson Space Center.
Astronaut who flew on five Space Shuttle missions, including the maiden flight of Space Shuttle Discovery.
American astronaut chosen for the STS-51-L mission from among 11,000 applications. She was scheduled to become NASA's first teacher in space, but was tragically killed in 1986 when the Challenger exploded.
Kalpana Chawla was American astronaut who died in the Space Shuttle ˜Columbia' disaster. Born in Karnal, India, she was the first woman of Indian origin to go to space. A tomboy from the beginning, she developed a passion for airplanes in her early childhood. After earning a Bachelor of Engineering degree from the University of Punjab she moved to the USA at the age of twenty. There she did her Masters and PhD in Aerospace Engineering. Thereafter, she joined NASA and began her career as a researcher, working on various topics first at Ames Research Center and then at Overset Methods Inc. Meanwhile, she became a certified pilot with a commercial license for multi-engine airplanes, seaplanes, and gliders. After becoming a US citizen in 1991, she applied for the NASA Astronaut Corps, eventually joining the organization in March 1995. In May 1997, she went on her first space mission, travelling for fifteen days in the Space Shuttle Columbia flight STS-87. In 2003, she travelled once again into the space aboard ill-fated Space Shuttle Columbia flight STS-107 and remained in the space for about sixteen days. She died at the age of forty when the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated over Texas, sixteen minutes prior to landing.
The first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova was a Russian cosmonaut, who travelled round the earth for three full days. Born in a family of peasants, Valentina lost her father to war and was raised with her other siblings singlehandedly by her mother under hard financial conditions. Later when she worked in a tire factory and cotton mill, she took correspondence courses and received a graduate degree from Light Industry Technical School. She took inspiration from Yuri Gagarin and volunteered for the space program organized by the Soviet government. Because of Valentina's skills as a trained parachutist, she was absorbed as a cosmonaut. She was chosen among the five women for a single woman-in-space flight and was given an honorary position in Russian air force. Valentina was part of a rigorous training program, but her stubborn persistence paid off. This eminent cosmonaut also went on to complete her doctoral studies in engineering after completing her space missions. She was a hardcore Communist and her feminist views made her join the Soviet Women's Committee, where she tirelessly worked for betterment of women. Read on to know more about the life, works and achievements of this famous cosmonaut
Commander of the famous Apollo 13 space mission and the first person to fly to the moon twice without making a landing. He was a Congressional Space Medal of Honor recipient.
A veteran of four spaceflights, he became the first person to accrue over 1,000 hours as a Space Shuttle commander/pilot. He also served as a colonel in the United States Air Force.
Commander of Expedition 26 on board the International Space Station. He piloted the Discovery Space Shuttle.
Chief Astronaut of the Canadian Space Agency from 2001 to 2007. She was a part of the STS missions 96 and 127.
This NASA astronaut and scientist was involved in the missions surrounding the Space Shuttle Columbia's fifth flight (STS-5) and the Space Shuttle Discovery's second flight (STS-51-A). In addition, during the mid-1970s, he was NASA's Washington, D.C.-based Assistant Administrator for Legislative Affairs.
Alan Shepard was the first American to travel into space. He became the second human to travel into space, after the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. He started his career in the navy, on the destroyer ˜USS Cogswell,' which was on active service in the Pacific Ocean. After his flying training, he joined the ˜Fighter Squadron 42' (VF-42) to fly the ˜Vought F4U Corsair.' He attended the ˜United States Naval Test Pilot School' and subsequently conducted high-altitude flying tests. Shepard was one of the seven test pilots selected to be part of ˜NASA's space initiative and became a national hero after his maiden flight into space. He commanded the first manned ˜Gemini' mission that was the next level of the US space program after the ˜Mercury' series. Shepard was the commander of the ˜Apollo 14' mission that made America's third successful landing on the Moon. This made him the fifth and the oldest person to walk on the surface of the Moon, at the age of 47. He was promoted to the rank of rear admiral in the ˜US Navy' before he retired and spent the rest of his life close to his family. He died of leukemia in 1998.
Roberta Bondar or Roberta Lynn Bondar is the first Canadian woman to travel into space. She was also the first neurologist and researcher to do so. She has received many honors including the ˜Order of Canada', the ˜Order of Ontario', the Nasa space Medal' and others. Her field of research was mainly the human nervous system on which she conducted a large number of basic and clinical experiments. She spent a decade being the head of NASA's team for space medicine and has spoken of her experiences and ideas at various scientific, business and medical gatherings. She led a team of international researchers at NASA for more than a decade who examined the data received from various space flights to find out the effect of low gravity on the human body and its ability to overcome the exposure to the weightlessness in space. After her space career she pursued her interests in photography and covered many natural habitats of wild animals to write her books replete with numerous photographs. Roberta Bondar enjoyed flying, canoeing, biking, hot-air ballooning, fishing, cross-country hiking and skiing and target shooting with both handgun and rifle. Her work on space science and weightlessness helped others to understand many things that were hitherto unknown to mankind.
First person to fly into space six times and the ninth to set foot on the moon. He orbited the moon alone aboard the Apollo 10.