This former Communist Party politician briefly joined the Party of Civic Understanding before becoming a political Independent and holding office from 1999 until 2004 as the second President of Slovakia. Previously, he had served as Speaker of his country's National Council.
Affiliated with the Islamic Republican Party until 1987 and with the Green Path of Hope Party beginning in 2009, this Iranian politician held office during the 1980s as his country's Prime Minister. Earlier in his political career, he had served as Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, under the presidential administration of <a title='Jacques Chirac' href='/famous/jacques-chirac.htm'>Jacques Chirac</a>, this Socialist Party politician held office as Prime Minister of France. He had previously served as both Minister of Sport and Minister of National Education.
Johannes Rau was a German politician who served as the President of Germany for five years. Before getting to the topmost position of the country, he held various political positions including the post of mayor of Wuppertal. Influenced by his protestant family, he regularly participated in ˜The Confessing Church', which worked to actively raise their voice against the rise of Nazism. Rau considered it his life's mission to mend the cracks that had developed in his country's reputation and image due to Germany's violent past. His attitude was one of a patriot rather than a nationalist, because more than anything, Rau worshipped his ˜fatherland' and wished to lead it in the right direction. A number of doctorates and honorary prizes were conferred upon him in his political career. He was an ardent follower of Christianity and was even included as a member of the prestigious Synod of the Evangelical Church, Rhineland. The motto that he constantly swore by in his political career was ˜to reconcile, not divide'. This helped him win the hearts of his countrymen, who still recognize his contribution in German history.
Politician and revolutionary who was the Premier of Eastern Nigeria during the First Republic from 1959 to 1966. He was a pragmatic socialist who put great emphasis on agricultural reform.
Honduran political leader who served as President of Honduras from 1982 to 1986. He was elected after military rule in Honduras ended.
This Lebanese Independent politician served as his country's president from 2008 until 2014. Prior to beginning his political career, he spent a decade commanding the Lebanese Armed Forces.
In 2005, after serving two terms as his country's Minister of Foreign Affairs, this Panhellenic Socialist Movement politician took office as President of Greece.
One of the founders of modern Nigeria, as well as a lawyer, orator, and aristocrat. He was the Premier of Western Nigeria from 1960 until he was assassinated in a 1966 coup.
From 1961 until 1964, this Labour Party politician served as President of Brazil. Previously, he had served as Minister of Labor, Industry, and Trade; President of the Federal Senate; and Vice President of Brazil.
Uruguayan politician who served as the President of Uruguay from 1931 to 1938. He was known for his dictatorial style, having abolished the country's constitution in favor of a new one which transferred nearly all the state's powers to himself.
Member of the National Party who held office as the President of Honduras from 1990 to 1994. He helped Honduras usher in the first peaceful transfer of power in over 50 years.
After overthrowing Emperor Pedro II in an 1889 coup, this military leader established the Republic of Brazil and took office as the country's first president.
Former President of Czechoslovakia and leader of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia who served from 1975 to 1989. He helped restore his country after the bloody Prague Spring in 1968.
Politician who served as Ukrainian President from 2005-2010. Previously, he had held office as Prime Minister of Ukraine.
Military leader and politician who was the President of Peru for four non-consecutive terms. He was elected for the first time in 1844 and the last time in 1863.
Member of the National Republican Alliance who held office as the President of El Salvador from 1989 to 1994. He played an instrumental role in ending the Salvadoran Civil War in 1992.
After serving a two-year term as Prime Minister of Portugal, this Social Democratic Party politician took office as President of the European Commission, a position he held from 2004 until 2014.
Arthur Balfour was one of the most prominent politicians of the United Kingdom, who lived in the 19th century. Entering politics wasn't too tough a task for Balfour since the families of both his parents were into politics. Though Arthur is remembered till date as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, his most significant contribution was the emphasis on the development of Ireland. He introduced the concept of ˜Unionism' in the nation, and also did whatever he could to uplift the lower sections of the society. He played an important role in various negotiations between the United Kingdom and other countries such as France and Russia. Arthur was also known for being a religious Christian, and Theology was one of his subjects of great interest. Arthur also published a few books based on his Theological concerns. One such work was ˜A Defence of Philosophic Doubt'. Balfour was famous amongst writers and journalists for his mannerisms, popularly known as ˜Balfourian Manner'. His sexual orientation was also a matter of great concern for many. While few of them spoke about his close relationships with women, others argued that he was gay.
He was one of the first leaders of Paraguay after it became independent from Spain, serving twice once for a year, and once for 26 years.
Dr. Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei is an Egyptian lawyer and diplomat who served as the Director General of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. Just like his father he supported democratic rights for the Egyptian people and freedom of speech for the press and everybody else. He supported nuclear disarmament during his tenure as the Director General of the IAEA and insisted on the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. He was highly supportive of diplomatic tackling of the nuclear proliferation issues in countries like North Korea and Iran and recorded the fact that the IAEA had found no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq which had been the main reason behind the invasion of Iraq by America and its allies. He was appointed as the head of IAEA for three consecutive terms and carried on his movement for nuclear disarmament as long as was with the organization and even after that. He could speak Arabic, English and French very fluently and decent German which helped to do his work in Vienna. When he went back to his own country after his stint as IAEA's head, he found the regime of President <a title='Hosni Mubarak' href='/famous/hosni-mubarak.htm'>Hosni Mubarak</a> absolutely unacceptable and protested vehemently for its removal and served as the acting Vice President of Egypt from 14 July 2013 until 14 August 2013.
This member of the New Democracy Party served two terms as Prime Minister of Greece during the middle of the first decade of the 21st Century. From 2004 until 2006, he also served as Greek Minister of Culture.
Known for his battlefield heroics during the late 1840s United States Invasion of Mexico, he is also remembered as Mexico's eleventh President. He assumed the presidency in 1839 and was again in power in 1846 and from 1842 to 1843.
From 1919 until 1924 and again from 1939 until 1948, Smuts served as Prime Minister of South Africa. Also a military man, he was a hero in the Second Boer War and a member of the United Kingdom's War Cabinet.